以下为英语六级真题及答案必威

作者:必威-重要消息

  二零一八年上八个月全国民代表大会学英文四六级考试于二月十二十十17日拓宽,网易教育24小时全程关怀,为您带给第一手四六级考试资源信息。以下为菲律宾语六级真题及答案:

So I'm here to talk to you about the walkable city. What is the walkable city? Well, for want of a better definition, it's a city in which the car is an optional instrument of freedom, rather than a prosthetic device. And I'd like to talk about why we need the walkable city, and I'd like to talk about how to do the walkable city.

  长对话1:

Most of the talks I give these days are about why we need it, but you guys are smart. And also I gave that talk exactly a month ago, and you can see it at TED.com. So today I want to talk about how to do it. In a lot of time thinking about this, I've come up with what I call the general theory of walkability. A bit of a pretentious term, it's a little tongue-in-cheek, but it's something I've thought about for a long time, and I'd like to share what I think I've figured out.

  A: 1.Tonight we have a special guest from the local establishment the Prage Café。 Welcome。

In the American city, the typical American city — the typical American city is not Washington, DC, or New York, or San Francisco; it's Grand Rapids or Cedar Rapids or Memphis — in the typical American city in which most people own cars and the temptation is to drive them all the time, if you're going to get them to walk, then you have to offer a walk that's as good as a drive or better. What does that mean? It means you need to offer four things simultaneously: there needs to be a proper reason to walk, the walk has to be safe and feel safe, the walk has to be comfortable and the walk has to be interesting. You need to do all four of these things simultaneously, and that's the structure of my talk today, to take you through each of those.

  B: Hi, thanks for have a meal on your show。

The reason to walk is a story I learned from my mentors, Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, the founders of the New Urbanism movement. And I should say half the slides and half of my talk today I learned from them. It's the story of planning, the story of the formation of the planning profession. When in the 19th century people were choking from the soot of the dark, satanic mills, the planners said, hey, let's move the housing away from the mills. And lifespans increased immediately, dramatically, and we like to say the planners have been trying to repeat that experience ever since.

  A: Thank you for joining us。 So please tell us why do decide to open a café。

So there's the onset of what we call Euclidian zoning, the separation of the landscape into large areas of single use. And typically when I arrive in a city to do a plan, a plan like this already awaits me on the property that I'm looking at. And all a plan like this guarantees is that you will not have a walkable city, because nothing is located near anything else. The alternative, of course, is our most walkable city, and I like to say, you know, this is a Rothko, and this is a Seurat. It's just a different way — he was the pointilist — it's a different way of making places. And even this map of Manhattan is a bit misleading because the red color is uses that are mixed vertically.

  B: Well, we saw the opportunity to offer something a little special and different from other establishments。 Cafe certainly is a very competitive market sector。 2.There are more than plenty in our city, and we thought they are all rather similar to each other。 Wouldn’t you agree?

So this is the big story of the New Urbanists — to acknowledge that there are only two ways that have been tested by the thousands to build communities, in the world and throughout history. One is the traditional neighborhood. You see here several neighborhoods of Newburyport, Massachusetts, which is defined as being compact and being diverse — places to live, work, shop, recreate, get educated — all within walking distance. And it's defined as being walkable. There are lots of small streets. Each one is comfortable to walk on. And we contrast that to the other way, an invention that happened after the Second World War, suburban sprawl, clearly not compact, clearly not diverse, and it's not walkable, because so few of the streets connect, that those streets that do connect become overburdened, and you wouldn't let your kid out on them. And I want to thank Alex Maclean, the aerial photographer, for many of these beautiful pictures that I'm showing you today.

  A: Certainly yes。 So how is your establishment any different?

So it's fun to break sprawl down into its constituent parts. It's so easy to understand, the places where you only live, the places where you only work, the places where you only shop, and our super-sized public institutions. Schools get bigger and bigger, and therefore, further and further from each other. And the ratio of the size of the parking lot to the size of the school tells you all you need to know, which is that no child has ever walked to this school, no child will ever walk to this school. The seniors and juniors are driving the freshmen and the sophomores, and of course we have the crash statistics to prove it.

  B: Well, since people we have rabbits wandering freely on the place; our customers come in and enjoy their food and drinks, while a little rabbit playing on their legs。 There is no other place like it。

And then the super-sizing of our other civic institutions like playing fields — it's wonderful that Westin in the Ft. Lauderdale area has eight soccer fields and eight baseball diamonds and 20 tennis courts, but look at the road that takes you to that location, and would you let your child bike on it? And this is why we have the soccer mom now. When I was young, I had one soccer field, one baseball diamond and one tennis court, but I could walk to it, because it was in my neighborhood.

  A: That’s amazing。 How do you come up with the idea?

Then the final part of sprawl that everyone forgot to count: if you're going to separate everything from everything else and reconnect it only with automotive infrastructure, then this is what your landscape begins to look like. The main message here is: if you want to have a walkable city, you can't start with the sprawl model. you need the bones of an urban model. This is the outcome of that form of design, as is this. And this is something that a lot of Americans want. But we have to understand it's a two-part American dream. If you're dreaming for this, you're also going to be dreaming of this, often to absurd extremes, when we build our landscape to accommodate cars first. And the experience of being in these places —

  B: So we thought why not rabbit? People love the rabbits, they are very cute animals。

(Laughter)

  A: But it is safe? Do the rabbit ever bite people or do any customer ever hurt the rabbits?

This is not Photoshopped. Walter Kulash took this slide. It's in Panama City. This is a real place. And being a driver can be a bit of a nuisance, and being a pedestrian can be a bit of a nuisance in these places. This is a slide that epidemiologists have been showing for some time now,

  B: It is perfectly safe both for rabbits and our customers。 3.Rabbits are very peaceful and safe。 They don’t bite。 Our rabbits are regularly cleaned。 So there is no risks ever。 4.And as for our customers, they are all animals lovers。 We will never try to hurt the rabbits。 Sometimes some young child may get over excited and be a little too rough。 But is never a serious matter。 On the contrary, the café is a great experience for children。 A chance they learn how to take care of the animals。

(Laughter)

  A: Well it is certainly the first time I heard of a café like that。

The fact that we have a society where you drive to the parking lot to take the escalator to the treadmill shows that we're doing something wrong. But we know how to do it better.

  1。 What do we learn about the woman?

Here are the two models contrasted. I show this slide, which has been a formative document of the New Urbanism now for almost 30 years, to show that sprawl and the traditional neighborhood contain the same things. It's just how big are they, how close are they to each other, how are they interspersed together and do you have a street network, rather than a cul-de-sac or a collector system of streets?

  2。 What does the woman say about the café in her city?

So when we look at a downtown area, at a place that has a hope of being walkable, and mostly that's our downtowns in America's cities and towns and villages, we look at them and say we want the proper balance of uses. So what is missing or underrepresented? And again, in the typical American cities in which most Americans live, it is housing that is lacking. The jobs-to-housing balance is off. And you find that when you bring housing back, these other things start to come back too, and housing is usually first among those things. And, of course, the thing that shows up last and eventually is the schools, because the people have to move in, the young pioneers have to move in, get older, have kids and fight, and then the schools get pretty good eventually.

  3。 How did Prage café guarantee the rabbit does not post a harmful threat?

The other part of this part, the useful city part, is transit, and you can have a perfectly walkable neighborhood without it. But perfectly walkable cities require transit, because if you don't have access to the whole city as a pedestrian, then you get a car, and if you get a car, the city begins to reshape itself around your needs, and the streets get wider and the parking lots get bigger and you no longer have a walkable city. So transit is essential. But every transit experience, every transit trip, begins or ends as a walk, and so we have to remember to build walkability around our transit stations.

  4。 What did the woman say about their customers?

Next category, the biggest one, is the safe walk. It's what most walkability experts talk about. It is essential, but alone not enough to get people to walk. And there are so many moving parts that add up to a walkable city.

  (李琳娜)

以下为英语六级真题及答案必威。The first is block size. This is Portland, Oregon, famously 200-foot blocks, famously walkable. This is Salt Lake City, famously 600-foot blocks, famously unwalkable. If you look at the two, it's almost like two different planets, but these places were both built by humans and in fact, the story is that when you have a 200-foot block city, you can have a two-lane city, or a two-to-four lane city, and a 600-foot block city is a six-lane city, and that's a problem. These are the crash statistics. When you double the block size — this was a study of 24 California cities — when you double the block size, you almost quadruple the number of fatal accidents on non-highway streets.

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So how many lanes do we have? This is where I'm going to tell you what I tell every audience I meet, which is to remind you about induced demand. Induced demand applies both to highways and to city streets. And induced demand tells us that when we widen the streets to accept the congestion that we're anticipating, or the additional trips that we're anticipating in congested systems, it is principally that congestion that is constraining demand, and so that the widening comes, and there are all of these latent trips that are ready to happen. People move further from work and make other choices about when they commute, and those lanes fill up very quickly with traffic, so we widen the street again, and they fill up again. And we've learned that in congested systems, we cannot satisfy the automobile.

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